The Montessori Pedagogy thanks its name to her founder Maria Montessori. During her long-lasting work with children and precise observation gradually the fundamental ideas for her pedagogy increased.
Maria Montessori never expected anything, she accepted simply the children. She realized that children would not acquire more knowledge under pressure and compulsion. Thus working or learning offers are considered to be voluntary offers, not as compulsion. Every child may develop freely in its own personal characteristics.
According to the individual age the child receives more responsibility for delegation. So even veryyoung children learn how to close the button of the jacket, clean the table, tie the shoes. Another considerable part of the Montessori Pedagogy consists in respecting the environment and other creatures (earth, plants, animals, human beings)
She put great stress on social relations and tolerance to others. A great part of that pedagogy comprises exercises in silence which can look like very different, mostly beginning with the children sitting on the ground in a circle. One of these exercises consists of passing around a thread with a very small bell hanging at the end. The aim is to give the thread as slowly, carefully as possible to another child without the small bell not making any sound. These relaxing, almostmeditative exercises help the children to find rest and concentration.
The obviously well-known basic idea is to transfer knowledge by learning and working materials.
Maria Montessori thought up various materials for sense, language, mathematics and cosmic education (religious education, biology, chemistry, geography) to make comprehensive the learn-contents. Almost all materials are easy to understand and to control. The child is able to control on correctness its work without any help of an adult.
The children get more creative and consider the way of learning as something positive. They get to know their individual strength and learn to accept better all weaknesses which cannot be regarded as final, but always capable of improvement.
Another important part is the new role of the teacher. The Montessori educationalist regards himself as a person to help, accompany, and to observe the child. He prepares the right surroundings and he is responsible for conserving them. If the child needs help and asks for help, the teacher is going to help. Furthermore he obtains the role of being an observer. He does not demand, nor he forces anything, instead he provides help imperturbably. Through observing the children the Montessori teacher is capable of assessing exactly the child.